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The intake of three or more continuous use medications increases the likelihood of poor sleep according to objective and subjective sleep measurements


Studies show that simultaneous use of different pharmacological substances is associated with health outcomes regardless of their pharmacological class and isolated biological mechanisms. However, the consequences of the intake of continuous use medications are not stablished yet in middle-aged populations. Schoolteachers are exposed to a number of factors that might affect general health and sleep quality.


The objective of the present study was to examine the association between the number of continuous use medications and sleep duration and quality in Brazilian schoolteachers.


This cross-sectional study comprised 168 schoolteachers from elementary and secondary public schools in Londrina, Brazil. We classified participants according to the reported number of continuous use medications (0-2; 3 or more). Sleep was measured with actigraphy and a concomitant sleep diary for seven days, in addition to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic models were adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and morbidity variables.


16.7% of the participants were classified as in use of 3 or more modications. In full-adjusted analyses, the use of ≥3 medications was associated with lower actigraphic sleep duration (<6 h) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99-1.60), higher sleep onset latency (SOL) (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.00-7.02 for actigraphy; and OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.36-10.5 for the sleep diary), lower self-reported sleep efficiency (OR: 11.6, 95% CI: 2.92-46.1), and with a higher number of awakenings during sleep measured by actigraphy (OR: 3.30, 95% CI: 1.32-8.28). A 1-unit increment in the number of continuous-use medications was associated with higher self-reported SOL and lower subjective sleep efficiency. The number of medications was not significantly associated with PSQI and with the frequency of sleep complaints.


In this cross-sectional study with schoolteachers, the intake of 3 or more continuous use medications was associated with short sleep duration and poor sleep quality, measured both objective and subjectively.


actigraphy; medications; sleep.


Área Básica


Universidade Estadual de Londrina - Parana - Brasil


Marcela Zambrim Campanini, Alberto Durán Gonzalez, Selma Maffei de Andrade, Edmarlon Girotto, Marcos Aparecido Sarria Cabrera, Arthur Eumann Mesas