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Smart bands in the study of the effects of smoking by gender


Studies monitoring sleep by using instruments are relatively new in the literature. Polysomnography predominates among them in spite of criticism of limitations of the method. There are few studies evaluating differences of gender in sleeping patterns in spite of its obvious importance. When the effects of drugs are studied by gender studies are even fewer. The few studies suggested that women are more likely to complain of insomnia, and a longer latency and less total time of sleep were suggested for smokers, with no agreement among authors.


Evaluation of differences in the effects of tobacco on sleep patterns comparing genders in university students.


Volunteers were 40 smokers and non-smokers students invited by convenience in the Universidade Federal Fluminense (Niterói-RJ, Brazil). They were divided into 4 groups as following: Female-smokers (1) and Female-non smokers (2), Male-smokers (1) and Male-non smokers (2). They filled the consent form and answered questionnaires about their sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Insomnia Severity Index) and nicotine dependence (Fagerström). After this they were provided with a smartband Xiaomi Mi Band™ and instructed not to remove it for one week. This instrument is capable to detect sleep parameters by accelerometers and heart beats sensors.


A two way ANOVA taking gender and smoking as independent variables indicated: a significant interference of gender on total sleep time (female: 407.7±48.6, male: 301.7±150.2 minutes) and on light sleep (female: 321.8±50.7, male: 234.8±124.7 minutes). Gender also influenced sleep interruptions (female: 12,7±10.5, male: 5.2±6.1 minutes). Smoking significantly interfered on time of deep sleeping (female: (1) 85.8±22.4 x (2) 110.4±19.7 minutes, male: (1) 70.2±35.5 x (2) 95.8±30.8 minutes). Data are daily means of seven monitored nights in minutes. No interactions between gender and smoking were significant.


The study corroborates previous findings of the influence of smoking on sleeping quality and adds information about gender differences in sleep architecture. In summary, smart bands can detect effects previously demonstrated with polysomnography and gender must be considered in every study on sleeping patterns.


sleep, gender, smoking, smart bands.


Área Clínica


Universidade de São Paulo - Sao Paulo - Brasil, Universidade Federal Fluminense - Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, University of New York - - Estados Unidos


Lucas Caroli Cruz, Thiago Coronato Nunes, Vilma Aparecida da Silva Fonseca, Fernanda Romeiro Dias, Kaic Fiuza Campos, Bruno Gonçalves, Azizi Seixas, Jean Louis Girardin